Vol. 7, January, 2004

viagra tout savoir 1/7 PLASMID-ENCODED GENES FOR RESISTANCE createur du viagra AND   DEGRADATION OF cialis 20 pas cher CETYLTRIMETHYL AMMONIUM BROMIDE IN PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

M.M.Kh. Okasha, N.E. Yousef and H.K. Abd Ellatief

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Fac. Pharmacy, Zagazig University.

Zagazig, Egypt.

A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was isolated from cetrimide ( cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) biocide solution. Such solution is supposed to be a disinfectant in Zagazig University General Hospital. The isolate is capable of utilizing cetrimide solution as a sole source of carbon , nitogen and energy. A plasmid of approximately 44 kb was found to be responsible for carring genes for quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) degradation in this strain. The gene of such activity was resided on plasmid fragments of sizes 6.6 , 2.8 or 2.3 kb. Cloning of the cetrimide- resistance region (qac genes) in an Escherichia coli vector/host system produced a hybrid plasmid which expressed this phenotype. This strain was adapted to grow on cetrimide at higher concentrations. Maximum growth was observed at 0.05g%w/v on cetrimide agar medium. Further increase in concentration resulted in lower growth and degradation efficiency up to 0.1g%w/v.

 

 

viagra et tension oculaire 2/7 RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN

R.M. Arafa, W. El-Mosalammy, G.A. Amer and T.G. Abd El-Rhman

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Benha Faculty of Medicine,

Zagazig University

This study was conducted on 70 patients (less than 5 years old), suffering from symptoms and signs of respiratory tract infection and twenty healthy children as control to detect rate of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and to determine role of apoptosis in its pathogenesis. The study showed that RSV infection was more common below 1 year of age (79.6%) compared to 66.7% and 50% in children between 1-2 years, and above 2 years respectively. No significant difference between males (80.7%) and females (71.8%). The study revealed that RSV infections were significantly higher in patients with bronchiolitis (87.2%) compared to pneumonia (66.7%) and bronchopneumonia (47.1%). The sensitivity of direct immunofluorescence test (DIF) in detecting RSV infection is 100% and the specificity is 73.9%. As regards to apoptosis, the study showed that apoptosis in RSV infected HEP-2 cells is statistically non significant if compared to non infected cells. Apoptosis was significantly higher in patients with mild clinical picture (no respiratory distress) than in patients with respiratory distress. No significant difference was detected between Giemsa stain and DNA electrophoresis in assessment of apoptosis.

viagra cialis france 3/7 INCIDENCE OF TUBERCULOSIS OF THE GENITOURINARY TRACT IN SOME TUBERCULOUS PATIENTS IN CAIRO, EGYPT

M.S.E. Ashour, G.A. Mohamed*, W.N. El-Tayeb and Z. Helal

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chest Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

The aim of the present work was to study the incidence of genitourinary tuberculosis among tuberculous patients in Cairo, Egypt. The study included 200 tuberculous patients. Six hundred urine specimens and 570 sputum specimens were collected. The specimens were examined by Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) stain and by culturing into Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) medium. Twenty-two cases of urine specimens representing 11% were positive by both Z-N stain and culture in L-J medium, while 82.6 %of the cases of sputum specimens were positive. Sixty-five mycobacterial isolates were recovered. The mycobacterium isolates were identified by a series of biochemical tests. 81.8% of isolates were qual e mais forte cialis ou viagra Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The susceptibility of the isolates to streptomycin, isoniazide, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and thiacetazone was performed by drug incorporation method. Results revealed that 53.8%, 30.8%, 27.7%, 18.5%, 10.7%, 7.7%, and 6.1% were resistant to streptomycin (SM), isoniazide (INZ), rifampin (RMP), ciprofloxacin (CPF), pyrazinamide (PY), ethambutol (ETM) and thiacetazone (TCZ), respectively.    

cialis pour jeune homme 4/7 A STUDY ON SOME RISK FACTORS IN DEVELOPING HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA IN EGYPT

M.S.E Ashour, S.A.L. Eissa* and S.A.Zaki

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Egypt and Department of Clinical Pathology-National Cancer Institute- Cairo University*.

This study was performed to verify the interaction of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and aflatoxins as risk factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among Egyptians and to verify the importance of P53 mutations and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) overexpression as risk factors in developing HCC. A total of 180 cases were included in this study: 150 cases were suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma and 30 patients suffering from other types of cancer were used as a control group.They were of comparable age and sex to the HCC group. All patients were examined and diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University. Results of the study showed that hepatitis C virus was the most prevalent risk factor among HCC patients in Egypt. In HCC patients, HCV-Ab was the most prevalent marker with a percentage of 76.67% followed by HCV-RNA (58.67%) then HBcAb (28.67%) and finally HBsAg with a percentage of 14%. Results of this study also showed that 82 patients (54.67%) had detectable levels of aflatoxin B1(AFB1) while 68 (45.33%) had undetectable levels. The study also showed that HCC group had transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) that ranged from 0.117 to 0.998 ng/ml with a mean of 0.437±0.214 and had alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels that ranged from 6 to 899 ng/ml with a mean of 201.95±180.61.Analysis of mutations of codon 249 of exon 7 of the p53 gene by RFLP showed that none of the samples tested had this specific type of mutation.

dapoxetine au quebec 5/7 DETECTION OF SALMONELLA SEROVARS AND CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI USINGMULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

T.R. Elkhamissy,

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azher University, Assiut.

effet indesirable tadalafil Campylobacter jejuni and viagra das plantas Salmonella Serovars are the most frequent etiologic agents of bacterial gastroenteritis. They are transmitted to human by contaminating various types of food. Simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella Serovars using polymerase chainreaction (PCR) provide a powerful rapid and sensitive method for diagnosis of infection by these organisms. Two sets of oligonucleotide primers were used in the PCR reaction assay to detect both Salmonella Serovars and Campylobacter jejuni in one test mixture containing the extracted DNA of the organisms. The detection limit as determined by ethidium bromide staining of the amplified products was 30 fg using uniplex PCR. Whoever the detection limit of the multiplex PCR for the specific genes of the two organisms was 3 pg after several trials for optimizing the conditions of the reactions.  

6/7 ASSESSMENT OF ERIC AND RAPD-PCR FINGERPRINTING IN DISCRIMINATION OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS ISOLATES

T.R. El-Khamissy

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University, Assiut

A total of 32 Salmonella enteritidis isolates from avian and human infections were investigated using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and randuum amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), to assess the discrimination ability of both techniques for Salm. enteritidis isolates from various sources. Two primers for ERIC and one primer for RAPD were used at optimized conditions of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ERIC-PCR produced nine, and RAPD-PCR produced eight different DNA banding patterns differentiating Salm. enteritidis isolates. Both techniques have shown the ability to discriminate Salm. enteritidis isolates within the phage type, but unable to differentiate between Salm. enteritidis isolates whether they originated from human or avian infections. However, in combination with phage typing scheme, ERIC or RAPD-PCR increased the discrimination power to differentiate Salm. enteritidis isolates.

7/7 ANTIBODY RESPONSE TO RECOMBINANT DNA HEPATITIS B VACCINE BY USING TWO DIFFERENT VACCINATION SCHEDULES

M.S.E. Ashour, K.A. El-Ghareeb, S.F.M. El-Kastawy and M.S. Ali
Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) causes systemic infection with major pathology in the liver. It is estimated that almost one billion individuals worldwide were exposed to HBV at one time. In this study one hundred and sixty eight volunteers (168) were classified randomly into four groups, the first group (included forty three individuals) was vaccinated by complete dose of the vaccine (20 ug/ml IM. At 0,1 and 6 months). Second group(included fifty individuals) was vaccinated by half dose (10 ug/ml IM) three times at 0,1 and 6 months. Third group (included forty five individuals) was vaccinated by half dose (10ug/ml IM) four times at 0,1,2 and 12 month. The fourth group (included thirty individuals) was taken as control group. The results of each of the vaccinated groups can be classified according to degree of immune response into three groups; good responders, weak responders and non responders . In this study the results of the group vaccinated by complete dose at schedule 0,1 and 6 months revealed that, 6.98% were good responders after the first dose. 16.27% were good responders after the second dose and 58.14% were good responders after third dose. As for the group vaccinated by half dose at schedule 0,1 and 6 months, results showed that 6.90% were good responders after the first dose, 12% were good responders after the second dose and 52% were good responders after the third dose, while results of the group vaccinated by half dose at schedule 0,1,2 and 12 months, recorded that 11.11% were good responders after the first dose 10.87% were good responders after second dose, 28.89% were good responders after third dose and 82.22% were good responders after fourth dose. In the first group, it was found that 62.79% were protected after first dose, 72.10% were protected after second dose, 100% were protected after third dose. As for the group vaccinated by half dose at the same schedule, results showed that 65.12% were protected after first dose, 82% were achieving protective level after second dose that reach 100% after third dose. Finally the group vaccinated by dose at schedule 0,1,2 and 12 months, the protective level was 71.11% after first dose, 73.11% were protected after second dose, 71.11% after third dose while 95.5% were protected after fourth dose. Complete vaccination schedule is very important and required for long duration protection against HBV infection .Putting in mind that vaccination against HBV for medical and non medical staff is   mandatory .    

8/7 COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ONE-FACTOR-AT-A-TIME AND FULL FACTORIAL DESIGN ON INULINASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER USING JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE (HELIA-NTHUS TUBEROSUS) TUBER POWDER

T.S. El-Mahdy, H. Radwan, M. Seddeek* and M.A. Amin**

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and *Department of mathematics, Faculty of Science, Helwan University. **Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University.

Twenty-seven microbial isolates were obtained from soil samples by enrichment medium supplemented with mineral salts containing inulin as a sole carbon and energy source. Strain, Aspergillus niger was selected as a higher inulinase-producer. Extracellular inulinase from A. niger was detected in the filtrate of 48 hour-old inulin-containing cultures. Crude cell-free filtrate showed inulinase as well as invertase activities. The effects of process parameters on inulinase production by A. niger have been studied by one-factor-at-a-time and full factorial design. Preliminary shaking-flask experiments in the fermentative production of inulinase using Jerusalem artichoke (source of inulin) and various carbon sources, separately and in combination, suggested that, the constitutive inulinase production by A. niger was probably subjected to catabolic repression. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was the best nitrogen source for inulinase production. The full factorial design using 3­­­­4 (81 trials) with varying combinations of Jerusalem artichoke and CSL concentrations, inoculum sizes and agitation rates was investigated. Results obtained were analyzed using SPSS/PC (Version 11). The factorial design was used to optimize the cultural conditions for inulinase production by A. niger. The agitation was shown to be the most significant variable factor on both biomass and inulinase production. It should be preferentially maintained at 200 rpm for biomass and statically for inulinase production. The optimum fermentation conditions for inulinase production from A. niger growing on powdered Jerusalem artichoke were 10% inoculum size, 4% Jerusalem artichoke powder and 1% CSL at static incubation conditions. On the other hand, the optimum fermentation conditions for biomass production by A. niger growing on powdered Jerusalem artichoke were 10% inoculum size and agitation at 200 rpm; and the percentages of Jerusalem artichoke powder and CSL could be used at the lowest concentration, hence, their negligible effects. Finally, a crude purified enzyme preparation was obtained from the culture filtrate of A. niger showed inulinase as well as invertase activities. The apparent Mr of the inulinase from A. niger was 70 kDa.

 

9/7 H. PYLORI COLONIZATION IN GASTRIC MUCOSA AND HCV INFECTION IN EGYPTIAN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC

LIVER DISEASE.

M. Abdel Aziz * and K. Abdel Hafeiz**

Department of Microbiology * and Tropical Medicine ** Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

Hepatitis C virus chronic liver disease (CLD) might predispose to diminished gastric inucosal defense. Thus, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization is more likely to occur in these patients than in other CLD or dyspepsia patients wit haul liver impairment. This study included 30 patients of HCV with CLD (group I). 30 patients of CLD without HCV (group II) and 30 patients of dyspepsia without liver impairment (group HI). During diagnostic endoscopy, six gastric biopsies from each patient were collected for isolation of H. pylori using standard culture methods, rapid nrcase leal (RUT) and histopathological examination in addition to serum samples for delect ion ofH. pylori specific IgG using ELISA method. H. pylori was isolated from 19 out of 30 CLD patients with HCV infection, 20 out of 30 CLD patients without HCV infection and 16 out of 30 dyspepsia patients. Correlation of the results of the histopathology, RUT and serological findings with the culture methods as standard diagnostic technique showed that histopathology had high sensitivity (85.5%) and specificity (85.7%) whereas RUT and serology had high sensitivity (87.3%) and lower specificity (57.1% and 31.4%) respectively. H. pylori colonization of gastric mucosa was more prevalent in males of middle age group (30- 59 years) in different studied patient groups. H. pylori colonization of gastric mucosa was negativelycorrelated with socio-economic (SE) status. CLD patients had (1.6) times at risk of gelling H. pylori infection than dyspepsia patients. In CLD patients without HCV (group H), the risk of colonization with H. pylori was 1.1 and did not correlate with etiology of hepatic disorder. Endoscopic examination did not correlate with the results of bacteriological, biochemical, serological and histopathological findings.

10/7 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EVALUATION OF FOUR METHODS FOR THE ASSAY OF YEAST KILLER TOXIN.

A.F. El Baz and Y.M. Shetaia*

Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI) University of Menoufiya, Sadaat City.

* Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ain Shams.

Four different assay methods namely methylene blue (MB) – thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) – Bromo cresol purple (BCP) and plate count agar were used for the evaluation of killer toxins activity of the six species of the yeast fungi, Kluyveromyces Lactis-Candida silvatica- Candida tropicalis- Rhodotorula mucilaginosa - Rhodotorula lactosa and Lipomyces tetrasporus. MTT assay method showed more rapid and precise results compared favourably with methylene blue and plate count agar assay techniques for the assessment of sensitive viability. BCP assay method showed incomparable result with the other employed techniques.    


11/7 EVALUATION OF ANTIPSEUDOMONAL ACTIVITIES OF LEVOFLOXACIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN, ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH AMIKACIN, USING CHECKERBOARD TITRATION AND TIME-KILL STUDIES

S.M. M. Kheira

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Thirty clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined for their susceptibility to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, alone and in combination with amikacin. The combined antipseudomonal activities were comparatively evaluated by checkerboard titration and time-kill studies. The minimal inhibitory concentrations at which 50% and 90% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50)/(MIC90)s were as follows (in µg/ml): levofloxacin, 0.25/32; ciprofloxacin, 0.5/64; and amikacin, 2.0/<128. At empiric breakpoints of < 16.0 mg/ml, 70% (21 out of 30) of the strains were susceptible to amikacin. Checkerboard titrations yielded synergistic fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices (≤0.5) for a single strain with levofloxacin and amikacin and for two strains with ciprofloxacin and amikacin. FIC indices of >0.5 to 1.0 were recorded for 50% and 47% of the strains with levofloxacin plus amikacin and ciprofloxacin plus amikacin, respectively. However, indices of >1.0 and <4.0 in 47% of the thirty strains were found with both levofloxacin plus amikacin and ciprofloxacin plus amikacin. No FIC indices indicating antagonism (FIC 4.0) were found. On the other hand, time-kill studies yielded ≥2 log10 decrease in viable counts compared to the more active drug alone in all strains tested for which the MICs of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were ≤4.0 µg/ml. For the remaining strains with quinolone MICs higher than 4.0 µg/ml, as determined by time-kill analysis, concentrations of drugs in combination were relatively high to be clinically recommended. Discrepancy in the detection of synergy was observed for both checkerboard titration and time-kill methods. According to current definitions of synergy there was a lack of correlation between the results obtained by the checkerboard and time-killing methodologies, with the FICs showing minor synergism and major additive and/or indifference and time-killing resulting in synergism. In conclusion, such definitions are variables and should be furtherly reevaluated.    

 

12/7 Site Occupation IN THE biosorption of some heavy metal ions by non-living PSEUDOMONAS SPP.

H.M. Hussein, M.A. Shaker* and A.E. Ali*

Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology, Alexandria, Egypt (Corresponding author)

*Physics & Chemistry Department, Faculty of Education “Damanhour”, Alexandria University, Egypt

Non living biomass of different Pseudomonas strains, isolated and identified in a previous study was used to experimentally investigate and to mathematically model the metal binding by dead biomass so as to assess the effect of biomass on the bio-availability of heavy metal contaminants and to characterize biomass binding sites. Passive adsorption of heavy metal cations, namely Cr(VI), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) by a carefully prepared biomass derived from microbial waste was examined at low pH values and ambient temperature. The adsorption isotherms fit the Langmuir model for a multi-step processes. The metal binding site capacity ni and metal binding equilibrium constants Ki were derived for each metal binding step. Heavy metals tightly bind at sites labeled A, B, C and D on the cell walls of the non living biomass.

13/7 MICROBIAL DETERIORATION OF DIFFERENT

MATERIALS USED IN FOOD INDUSTRIES

N. H. Abd El-Nasser and A. Agamia*

Department of Microbial Chemistry National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*Department of Biomedical Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

The interaction between different metallic or nonmetallic materials and microorganisms along a control were studied. The materials were steel, aluminium, stainless steel, steel coated with burned oil (steel + burned oil), aluminium coated with Teflon (PTFE), polyethylene and polypropylene. These are the materials mainly used in Bakery industry. The microorganisms studied were bacteria(Staphylococcusaureus),a yeast(Candida pseudotropicalis)and a fungus(Aspergillus niger). The study was performed in solid and liquid cultures. The objective was to evaluate the microorganism growth and measure the material deterioration. Therefore a better safety regulation can be implemented. The changes in weight of the different coupons in solid and liquid cultures with the different microorganisms were measured. Furthermore, the pH, the optical density and mycelial growth fungal were measured for liquid cultures. The tests revealed that microorganisms perform good growth intensity, high weight loss and high optical density. In the coupons materials steel coat with burned oil and steel measured values are higher than values in all other coupons materials. The different tested microorganisms were less affected by stainless steel, aluminium and PTFE coat or polyethylene and polypropylene. The PTFE coat was less affected than the other polymers. The Staphylococcus aureus and Candida pseudo- tropicalis growth values were higher than those of the fungus Aspergillus niger.

 

14/7 BIOCONVERSION OF SOME AGRICULTURAL WASTES BY STREPTOMYCES VIOLACEUS DSM4082 CELLULASE

M.M. Saad and A.M. Saad

Department of Microbial Chemistry, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

Cellulase enzyme was produced by Streptomyces violaceus DSM4082 grown on different carbon sources. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and or (Filter paper) at a concentration of 1% gave the highest yield of cellulase activity (151.o u/ml), followed by filter paper (136 u/ml). Other carbon sources gave low yields of enzyme. Addition of surfactants to the fermentation culture increased the enzyme production. The enzyme was precipitated from culture filtrate with ammonium sulphate followed by acetone. The precipitated enzyme recovery were 94.3% and 79.8%, respectively. In such application of partial purified enzyme, the enzyme was used for the hydrolysis of CMC. The increament of cellulase enzyme concentration, increased CMC hydrolysis. The produced enzyme was used for the hydrolysis of some agricultural wastes as rice straw for the production of syrup containing glucose and reducing sugars.


15/7 PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHITINASE FROM CUNNINGHAMELLA ECHINULATA

M. Ghareiba; M.M. Nour El-Deinb*; M.A. Abbasc and G.G. El- Diastyd

a Biology Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University.

b,c,d Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta and Mansoura , Mansoura

University, Egypt.

Achitinase (EC.3.2.1.14) from culture filtrate of Cunninghamella echinulata was purified 31.57 folds by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, gel filtration followed by anion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose. Optimum activity of the purified enzyme was recorded at pH 5.5 and 35ºC. The chitinase was completely stable for 15 minutes at pH 5-5.5 and 25-35ºC. The km was calculated to be 6.06 mg /ml for colloidal chitin. Enzyme activity was enhanced in presence of Ca 2+ or Mn 2+ at the time that EDTA and Hg 2+ produced a great inhibitory effect.

16/7 EFFECT OF PHOSPHOLIPASES ON DIMORPHIC TRANSITION AND ADHERENCE OF CANDIDA ALBICANS TO HUMAN VAGINAL CELLS

D.A. Sharaf El-Din, H.H. Radwan* and A.M. Hashem

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of pharmacy, Cairo university, and Helwan university*

Three phospholipases were isolated and characterized from the culture filtrate of the yeast- or the mycelia of Candida albicans by DEAE-sephadex chromatography. Phospholipase B (PLB), phospholipase C (PLC) and lysophospholipase (LPL), were purified to purification folds of 15.3, 14.7 and 16.1 respectively and showed single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and their molecular weights were 122, 90, and 87 kDa, respectively. The thermal and pH characters of the three enzymes were similar, where the optimum incubation temperature for the three enzymes was 37oC and the optimum pH ranged from 4 to 5 and the three enzymes were stable up to 45oC. All phospholipases activities of filamentous form of C. albicans were extremely high if compared to those of oval shaped yeast. PLC activity was stimulated by inducers of dimorphic transition. Furthermore, dimorphic transition was stimulated by the addition of exogenous PLC to the cells cultured in yeast peptone dextrose growth medium. Addition of alcohol to the growth medium, inhibits the production of inositol-1,4,5 triphosphate -the commonly product of PLC enzyme activity- also causes the delay of single cell yeast to hyphal form transition. A mutant (M3) of the same isolate which lake the ability to produce phospholipases was found to be non pathogenic and also was incapable to dimorphic transformation and also did not adhere to the vaginal epithelial cells if compared with the wild-type yeast. The addition of the purified exogenous PLB enhanced its adherence capability. These results suggested that, PLB may be an important factor or both virulency and adherence capability to epithelial cell by C. albicans, also PLC may be a regulator for the dimorphic transition process.


17/7 A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF A NEW ANAEROBIC GAS GENERATING SYSTEM

T.R. Mohamed

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

A new disposable hydrogen and carbon dioxide system was developed. It is based on a simple mathematical formula which adapts the amount of the chemical components to any anaerobic jar volume. Anaerobic conditions were generated using Laidlow Principle, with successful growth of representative strict anaerobes as well as facultative anaerobes. The new gas generating system could be used with a reliable disposable redox indicator paper stripe which is completely discharged in color with a calculated εh –230 m.v. The mean reaction-time for complete gas generation is 30 minutes, at 30ºC, with a mean-time for moisture appearance of 9.4 minutes. The efficacy of the new system was compared favorably to Oxoid gas generating kit (Oxoid-England) using the quantitative recovery of anaerobes, antimicrobial sensitivity testing of strict anaerobes, as well as in the recovery of different anaerobes from clinical specimens as comparison parameters. The total price of the chemicals used in generating anaerobic conditions in the standard 2.5L anaerobic jar is about L.E. 0.07 or ≈ $ 0.01, including the price of the anaerobic indicator stripe. Factors affecting the rate of redox indicator discharge were, also studied in the text.

18/7 MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SELECTED EYE COSMETICS SAMPLES OF AL-KOHL COMMONLY USED IN JORDAN

M.S. Mansy

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Zaytoonah University, Amman, Jordan.

            Seventy two items of Al-Kohl collected from Jordanian provinces representing: 12 samples of the original stones (used for Al-Kohl preparation) and 60 unopened ready to use samples were examined for their microbial contents. Ready to use samples were much more contaminated than the original stones. 50% of the unused samples were contaminated with bacteria and/or fungi comparing to 25% of the original stones samples. Quantitatively, 100% and 73.3% of the original stones and unused samples contained less than 100 cfu/g. of bacteria and fungi respectively. More than 20% of the unused samples contained more than 100 cfu/g. of bacteria and fungi. Among those samples 6.7% were heavily contaminated (contain more than 103-104 cfu/g) with bacteria and fungi. Coliform bacteria in a number of 100 cfu/g or more were recovered from 15% of the unused samples and none were recovered from original stones. The results of qualitative tests for identification of isolated microorganisms showed that 5 different species of Bacillus were found in the examined samples. Approximately 50% of the examined samples contained Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., P. vulgaris, S. marcescens were recovered from unused samples in different percentages, none from original stones. Three isolates of the detected Staphylococcus were aureus type and also two isolates of P. aeruginosa were detected in the unused samples. Also the fungal contaminants of all Al-Kohl samples were Aspergillus spp., Penicillium, Mucor, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Helmanthosporium, Chactomium and Yeasts at frequencies 26.7%, 18.3%, 13.3%, 16.7%, 8.3%, 8.3%, 6.7%, 5.0%, 6.7% and 8.3% respectively. The relationship between the detected level of microbial contamination in the tested samples with the proposed allowable international limits of contamination as well as the possible sources of contamination and the hygienic implications of using such cosmetic products by the public were discussed.

 

19/7 RELATION BETWEEN VIRULENCE OF SOME EGYPTIAN ISOLATES OF FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM AND DEOXYNIVALENOL PRODUCTION IN SOME MAIZE CULTIVARS

I.M. El-Refai

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

Sixteen different Fusarium graminearum isolates were isolated from various local cultivars of maize collected from different locations in Egypt. Isolates of F. graminearum were screened for their ability to produce deoxynivalenol (DON) using solid state fermentation conditions on rice medium. Fourteen isolates were DON producer and two isolates were DON non producer. Concentrations of DON were estimated by comparison with known amounts of DON standard. The mean DON concentrations ranged from 22-375mg/g. DON producing and non producing isolates of F. graminearum were tested for their ability to cause Gibberella ear rot in two susceptible maize cultivars. Harvested maize ears were analyzed for disease severity, grain yield and DON concentration. All tested isolates were pathogenic. Isolates produced higher DON concentration were more aggressive which indicate that DON could play a role as virulence factor. High DON producing isolate of F. graminearum was inoculated to six different maiz cultivars to determine when DON was detectable after inoculation and to estimate DON concentrations in inoculated maize kernels. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was detected in the different maize cultivars 48 h post inoculation (Pl) and its accumulation peaked at 120 h and decreased after 240 h (Pl). DON concentration in inoculated maize cultivars at 120 h (Pl) ranged from 2.75-5.55 (mg/g), and differences among the cultivars were significant. Understanding when DON are synthesized in the local cultivars will help to know how to prevent or delay the biosynthesis of this toxin.

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