Vol. 9, September, 2004

achat cialis 20mg original 1/9 FFECT OF GAUCHO INSECTICIDE ON THE EFFICACY OF FUNGICIDES USED TO CONTROL ROOT-ROT AND DAMPING-OFF DISEASES IN COTTON SEEDLINGS IN EGYPT

A.M. Abou-Zeid, Y.A.-G. Mahmoud and A.D. Talhi*

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

*Biology Department, Faculty of Science, University at Taif, Taif, Saudi Arabia

Effect of the insecticide Gaucho and three fungicides, Rizolex-T, Vitavax-captan and Monceren-combi were studied under laboratory and greenhouse conditionssingly and in combinations against ou acheter du viagra sans ordonnance Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum and comment prendre cialis 5mg F. moniliforme. Laboratory and greenhouse studies demonstrated similar results, but the response was more pronounced in laboratory experiments. Rizolex-T, Vitavax-captan and Monceren-combi gave consistently strong inhibition against mycelia growth of the tested fungi cialis contre indications in vitro, while Gaucho was less effective towards the tested fungi. IC50 were determined against each individual fungicide. On the other hand most of the combinations resulted in additive or antagonistic effects. Synergistic interactions were found in the case of Gaucho+Vitavax-captan towards viagra et probleme cardiaque F. moniliforme. The greenhouse experiments showed that Rizolex-T, Vitavax-captan and Monceren-combi as seed treatments provided excellent control of root-rot and damping- off diseases of cotton seedlings in soil infested with the tested fungi, while Gaucho had little or no effect. Mixtures of Gaucho and fungicides were more effective in controlling cotton seedlings disease in soil infested with these fungi, than fungicides alone.

monoxyde d azote viagra 2/9 INCIDENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AMONG PEPTIC ULCER AND CHRONIC CALCULOUS CHOLECYSTITIS PATIENTS USING THREE DIAGNOSTIC METHODS

S.A. Zaki*, O.A. Abd El-Rahman*, A. Ibrahim** and M.A. Badr*

*Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University and **Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University.

The aim of the present study is to compare the incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection among peptic ulcer and chronic calculous cholecystitis patients using three diagnostic methods: rapid urease test (RUT), detection of specific serum antibodies and histopathological examination. Twenty-two patients suffering from peptic ulcer in addition to 18 patients suffering from chronic calculous cholecystitis and endoscopically free of ulcers were included in this study. During diagnostic endoscopy, four biopsies from each patient were collected for isolation of H. pylori using RUT and histopathological examination in addition to serum samples for detection of H. pylori specific IgG using ELISA method. It was found that histopathology was positive for 16 patients (72.73%), RUT was positive for 9 patients (40.9%) while serology was positive for 19 patients (86.36%) suffering from gastritis, duodenitis or peptic ulcer. None of the patients suffering from chronic calculous cholecystitis was found positive by RUT or histopathology while 14 patients (77.77%) were found positive by serology. Bacteriological examination of resected gallbladders revealed that 12 patients (66.67%) had a positive culture. Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated from the gallbladder tissues (22.22%). The study indicated that serology may be used as a highly accurate and inexpensive alternative to the invasive biopsy techniques. It also indicated that Helicobacter pylori might represent a possible cause of gallbladder disorders. The high prevalence of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the calculous gallbladder tissues indicates a possible correlation of these organisms with the formation of gallbladder stones.

effet viagra et cialis 3/9 SEROPREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN CHILDREN IN JEDDAH, SAUDI ARABIA

S.M. Jaberand M.A.M. Yassien*

Department of Pediatrics, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, *Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdul-Aziz University,

Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

A total of 1126 asymptomatic children (1-14 years old) were randomly selected from all those attending the outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Maternity, and Children’s Hospital. The seropositivity of viagra effet immédiat Helicobacter pylori infection in asymptomatic children was detected by measuring IgG in their sera. The obtained results showed that the risk of infection among the total participant was 22.6%, in addition it was higher within the non-Saudi children (25.5%) than the Saudi children (19.8%). The type of water supply and the children schooling may have a role on raising the risk of pfizer viagra en ligne H. pylori infection. The parent's education levels inversely proportional to the prevalence of délai d action viagra H. pylori infection. The presence of pets or animals at home significantly increased the risk of H. pylori infections. These data show that the infection with H. pylori seems to occur very early in life in Saudi Arabia and increases with age. The prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity was affected by the type of water and the risk factors that related to the socioeconomic status, particularly education level, family crowding, and presence of children’s maid and also to the presence of pets and animals at home.These factors should be taken in consideration during designing prevention strategies for H. pylori infection in Saudi Arabia.

4/9 INDOOR MOLD FUNGI IN TWO DIFFERENT LOCALITIES

IN CAIRO

N.M. Hassanein

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ain Shams,

Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.

This study was conducting during the period of November 2000 to October 2001 to trap, enumerate and identify the different airborne mold fungi in a variety of microhabitats of indoor environments in different localities at Cairo (Opera house and Police prison rooms). The settle plate method was used on different media. A total of 24 genera and 137 species were trapped from all exposures. The total fungal catches (in cfu) obtained from all exposure during the four seasons were 5139 colonies. Opera house count recorded the highest count than Police prison rooms. The genus Penicilluim was the dominated genus representing 33.43% of the total count with high dominance to Aspergillus tubengensis among all the isolated species. Highest species richness was recovered in fall where 58 species were isolated. Opera recovered the highest species diversity where 58 different species were recovered in winter. Enzymatic activities of the isolates were studied and revealed that 66.4 % of the tested isolates showed cellulolytic activity and 23.4% showed keratinolytic activity. Pathogenic potentiality of the different isolates was also studied by detecting their thermotolerance ability. 21 isolates can grow at 370C and most of them were belonging to the genus Aspergillus while 4 isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus can grow at 450C. Most of these isolates could grow at 37 0C were characterized by lipolitic, proteolytic and haemolytic activity which indicates their pathogenic potentialities as opportunistic pathogens.

5/9 ENHANCED PULLULAN PRODUCTION BY IMMOBILIZED CELLS OF TWO NON – PIGMENTED MUTANTS OF AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS GROWN ON PRE- TREATED MOLASSES

S.A. Meliegy

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Department of Radiation Microbiology, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

The production of pullulan from beet molasses by non- pigment mutants of Auerobasidum pullulans ATCC 16628 and A. pullulans IRAQ strain by two stage fermentation was investigated. Combined pretreatment of molasses with sulfuric acid and activated carbon to remove potential growth inhibitors present in molasses resulted in a maximum Pullulan production (22.6 g/L for A. pullulans ATCC 16628 and 21.94 g/L for and A. pullulans IRAQ strain). The effect of the addition of the surfactants Tween 40, Tween 80 and Triton X-100 on Pullulan production was evaluated in shake flasks. All tested surfactant, improved final Pullulan concentration compared with the control that contained no detergent. In this respect Triton had the most pronounced effect as it led to higher oxygen concentration during fermentation. The two cells of fungus immobilized in sponge cubes elaborated high levels of the polysaccharide. Immobilized fungal cells grown on molasses treated with sulfuric acid and active carbon (SAAT) gave comparable cell weights and viable cell concentration. Independent of the tested carbon source, the immobilized fungal cell elaborated the highest polysaccharide levels in the culture medium after 7 days of growth at 30°C

6/9 CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM MILK PERMEATE SUPPLEMENTED WITH MOLASSES AND SOME MINERAL IONS BY YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA NRRL Y-1095

S.A. Meleigy and Z.A.E. Matter

National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Department of Radiation Microbiology, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt.

Citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica NRRL Y-1095 from milk permeate supplemented with different concentration of sugar cane molasses, Zinc and Iron Ions, was studied. It was found that fermentation of milk permeate with 40% v/v sugar cane molasses produced the highest amount (28.66 g/l) of citric acid. Addition of Zinc and Iron ions at 2.5 and 3.0 mg/l, respectively to the fermentation medium increased the production of citric acid being 32.86 g/l and 36.42 g/l citric acid in the same order. The treatment of Y. lipolytica NRRL Y-1095 by gamma irradiation increases the production of citric acid to 38.02 g/l at dose 0.25kGy. In general, extension of the fermentation for 72 h at 28˚C with pH 5.5 resulted in an increase in citric acid and a decrease in biomass.


7/9 DETECTION OF POTATO VIRUSES BY RT-PCR USING SPECIFIC AND UNIVERSAL PRIMERS

F.A. Fattouh

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been successfully used for the detection of two major viruses of the Potyviridae, the potato virus Y (PVY) A (PVA). For each virus a specific primer as well as a universal Potyviridae primer were used for amplification of PVY and PVA in either total RNA extract or crude infected leaf sap samples. The RT-PCR amplification product using the PVY1 primer gave a product of 425 bp whereas the PVA1 primer gave an amplification product of 359 bp, as expected. Specific primers were efficient for virus detection up to a 10,000 times dilution of crude infected sap for both viruses. When the universal S primer was used the amplification product for either virus was 1.7 kb in size. It was produced when crude infected leaf sap was diluted only up to 5,000 times. The sensitivity of detection of the virus depends on the size of the DNA template fragment. The shorter the size of the fragment, the more sensitive the RT-PCR. The universal primer has the advantage to any of the many viruses of the Potyviridae in an infected-leaf sample by a single test. On the other hand, the specific primers, because of their smaller size, increase the sensitivity of RT-PCR detection of its respective virus. RT-PCR could be used for routine testing of potato viruses in crude sap of infected leaves.

8/9 EMERGENCE OF MULTIPLE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE

H.K Abd-El-Latif and *R.L. Al-Khateeb

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Egypt

*Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia

The susceptibility of 300 Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates to 12 different antimicrobial agent was determined. The resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and several other antimicrobial agents has increased. The resistance frequencies of resistant isolates to ofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin and chloramphenicol among penicillin susceptible isolates were 56.6, 20.3, 12.4 and 5.3% respectively. The resistance values among penicillin intermediate resistant to these agents were record 42.6, 24.3, 18.4 and 7.3%. For penicillin resistant isolates the frequency of resistant values to these drugs was recorded 77.1, 42.7, 44.7 and 10.4%. in respective order. Out of the 113 penicillin G susceptible isolates the resistance frequencies (including intermediately resistant) for imipenem, ampicillin, amoxicillin, augmentin, cefotoxim, ceftriaxon and vancomycin were recorded (12.4, 6.2, 5.3, 0, 1.8, 0.9 and 0%) respectively. The resistance frequency among the penicillin intermediately resistant were17.1, 12.2 and 12.2 for imipenem, ampicillin and amoxicillin respectively. No resistant isolates was found to augmentin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxon and vancomycin among the penicillin susceptible and intermediately resistant isolates.The resistance to other tested b-lactams drugs raised among the penicillin resistant isolates. Thus 34.3% were intermediately resistant to imipenem, 0.9% resistant and 9.5% intermediately resistant to ampicillin, 7.6% intermediatly resistant to amoxicillin, 3.8% to augmentin, 5.7% to cefotaxime, and 2.8% to ceftriaxon. On the other hand, no resistant isolates were detected for imipenem, amoxicillin, augmentin, cefotaxime, ceftrioxan and vancomycin. Multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in penicillin resistant isolates (105). 32% of isolates exhibited resistance to three antibiotics at least.

9/9 EFFICACY AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION ON PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

BACTERIOPHAGE F116.

A.A. Hassan, *G.A. El- Sherbeny and M.K. Amin

Fac. Agriculture, Zagazig University, Dept. Genetics

*Fac. Science, Zagazig University, Dept. Botany.

Influences of gamma rays and fast neutrons on efficacy and mechanisms of action on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage F116 have been investigated. These mechanisms included, prophage induction, plaque forming ability, transducing particles and transduction efficiency. Survival percentages of 3 host strains, PAO1, MAM2 and PU17 have been seriously affected upon exposure to the ionizing radiation. Killing percentage ranged from 67.4 up to 78.9% when 5.6 x108 n/cm2 of fast neutrons was used. Prophage F116 induction mechanism from the lysogenic strain PU17 (PU21 F 116) has also been influenced. At 3.0 KGy of gamma rays and 5.6 x108 n/cm2 of neutrons resulting in 2-3 fold increase in prophage induction than control (zero- dose). Whereas, the induced phage was doubling (15.54) in fast neutrons than gamma irradiation (7.43). Subsequently, transduction frequency of streptomycin resistance gene using these induced phase reached 25.3x10-5 and 6.1x10-5 upon using fast neutrons and gamma rays respectively. This was correlating with number of transducting particles when calculated at these doses. Moreover, transduction frequency was also enhanced by treating the recipient host cells with different doses. In addition, a dramatic loss in the activation of phage F116 was observed upon treating the phage particles. This inactivation was occurred in plaque forming units and transducing abilities. The results of this study showed that fast neutrons were more effective on the previous phage F116 mechanisms than gamma rays. However, the effect was dose depending in both.

 

10/9 MOLECULAR CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF NUCLEOPROTEIN GENE (NPS) OF TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS IN E.COLI

E.T. Sayed, H.M. Habib, H. Abdelkader* and M. Al-Khazindar

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University. *Molecular biology laboratory, Virus Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute, ARC.

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has become an economically important virus infecting major crop and causing losses in Egypt and worldwide. The nucleocapsid (NPs) protein gene was isolated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from total nucleic acid extracts from TSWV-infected Datura metel, Lycopersicon esculentum, pelargonium sp. and Physalis peruviana. A fragment of the NPs gene of naturally occurring Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) isolate was amplified by RT-PCR using one set of primer TSWV1 (5'-ATGTCTAAGGTTAAGCTC-3' and TSWV2 (5'-TTAAGCAAGTTCTGTGAG-3'). A successful PCR amplification of the virus-specific DNA fragment (777 bp) amplicon was cloned, and expressed into the pBAD-C expression vector in E.coli. The NPs fusion protein was induced using 0.002 % of the L-arabinose with a time course of induction for 4 hours time period. DBIA (Dot Blot Immuno Assay) of purified 6xHis-Tag fusion nucleoprotein of TSWV strongly reacted with NINTA-AP conjugate after 15 minutes blocking in TBS-PVA. A strong reaction was also obtained in western immunoblots with the polyclonal antiserum prepared against the expressed nucleoprotein (NPs) gene.

11/9 INFLUENCE OF PH, WATER ACTIVITY AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH AND PATULIN PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS CLAVATUS IN RICE STRAW

H.A. Emara

Soils, Water and Environment Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Centre, Giza, Egypt.

The influence of pH, water activity (aw) and temperature on growth and patulin production by Aspergillus clavatus on rice straw was determined for 6 weeks incubation period. The optimum pH value for mold growth and patulin production was 6.0. The minimum aw at which the fungus capable of growing was 0.80, 0.80 and 0.77 at 20, 30 and 37 °C, respectively. Minimum aw values for patulin production were 0.86, 0.83 and 0.80 at 20, 30 and 37 °C, respectively.

12/9 RECOVERY OF CHITIN FROM CRUSTACEAN WASTES
BY PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES

S.M. Abdel-Aziz, M.A. Gad-Allah* and F.M. Moafi*.

Microbial Chemistry Dep., Microbial and Biotechnological Dep.*,

National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Bacillus sp. A-9 strain was used for deproteinization of crustacean wastes in the preparation of chitin. The optimized conditions for protease production was found when the culture was shaken (150 rpm) at 30oC for 5 days in 100 ml distilled water containing 3 gm of shrimp shells with initial pH 8.0. The enzyme was most active at pH 7.5 and at 40oC. The protease was activated by Mg2+, Mn2+, and Fe2+, and inhibited by Cu2+, Hg2+, Zn2+, and EDTA. The protease produced by Bacillus sp. A-9 was highly activated by Ca2+ at a concentration of 2mM. For deproteinization tests, removal of protein if shrimp and crab shells was greatly affected by the temperature drying process. Results indicated that the deproteinization ratios were 92% and 84% for air-dried shrimp shells and crab shells after 72h of incubation, respectively. While the deproteinization value decreased by increasing the temperature of drying process to reach 41% and 33% for shrimp and crab shells at 150oC, respectively. The percent of protein removal for acid-treated shrimp shell, shrimp head, crab shell by the enzyme was 74.5, 70.9, and 69.0%, respectively. When the organism was grown by liquid phase fermentation, protein removal ratio was 71% and 78% for shrimp shell and shrimp head, respectively. On solid phase fermentation by Bacillus sp. A-9, maximum protein removal rate was 87% and 84% for shrimp head and shrimp shell, respectively. Acid-treated shrimp shell by the organism in solid phase fermentation yield inconsiderable result.


13/9 PLASMIDS AND OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEINS (OMPS) CORRELATION WITH ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN BACTERIAL EYE INFECTION

A.M. Diab, S.A. Selim, S.M. El-Alfay and A.A. Abdelrahman*

FROM

Department of Botany, Microbiology Section, Faculty of Science,

*Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Bacterial eye infections have been reported frequently worldwide. Voluntarily 158 clinical cases suffering from six different types of eye infections were investigated in order to determine the role of bacteria, if there is any, as ocular infectious agents and the possible role of plasmids and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in their antibiotic resistance. The studied cases included conjunctivitis, keratitis, endophthalmitis, cellulitis, glaucoma and cataract. Conjunctivitis was the most common clinical feature (44%). Bacteria were detected in all samples with Staphylococcus aureus being the most attributed causative agent (54%). Antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates to 12 antibiotics namely; ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, rifampicin, cefotaxime, vancomycin, neomycin+polymyxin B, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin were plotted. All the tested isolates were found multiple antibiotic-resistant (MAR) with higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), resisting at least two of the studied antibiotics. Presence of plasmids was investigated in only four of the most resistant isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria spp and Streptococcus pneumoniae). They harbored plasmids with molecular sizes of 24, 21.5, 12.5 and 24 kbp, respectively. Excess OMPs bands were reported for the plasmid-bearing bacteria before than after curing. Poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis assay for the OMPs before and after plasmid curing showed paralleled correlation with resistance to antibiotics.

14/9 EFFICIENCY OF SYNECHOCYSTIS AQUATILIS AND CHROOCOCCUS SCHIZODERMATICUS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

N.H. Noaman, A.M. Khaleafa and M.I. Abdel Nabi

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

This study evaluated the changes in pH of wastewater and their effect on growth and ultrastructure of Synechocystis aquatilis and Chroococcus schizodermaticus. The ability of both algae to be used for wastewater treatment was also studied. The algal cells of S. aquatilis and C. schizodermaticus achieved ammonia removal by 94.34 and 95.43 %, respectively in 20 days. After 20 days of culturing, S. aquatilis and C. schizodermaticus removed nitrate by 51.11 and 64.44 % and phosphorus by 42.5 and 72.25 %, respectively. The heavy metals, nickel and chromium were completely removed by   both   algae.   Manganese was   completely   removed by C. schizodermaticus, but S. aquatilis removed only 70.95 % from the treated wastewater. Iron was completely removed by S. aquatilis and only by 21.11 % by C. schizodermaticus after the same period. Zinc was not removed by C. schizodermaticus, while S. aquatilis removed it by 25 % after 20 days.


15/9 INTERNAL DECAY DISEASE OF ONION BULBS AND ITS CONTROL

E.S.H. Farrag*; E.H.E. Ziedan* and S.Y.M. Mahmoud**

*Plant Pathology Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.

**Agric. Botany Dept., Fac. of Agric., South Vally Univ., Souhag, Egypt.

Internal decay of onion bulbs caused by Erwinia carotovora (Jones) Holland was observed recently in some samples at El-Gharbia Governorate, Egypt. The causal organism was consistently isolated with high frequency from inner tissue of onion and associated with Fusarium oxysporum. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified according to morphological, biochemical and physiological characters. Erwinia carotovora caused bulb rot under different artificial inoculation methods i.e. soil, plants and bulbs, while F. oxysporum caused basal rot of onion bulb only in case of soil infestation. The combination between two pathogenic bacterial and fungal isolates significantly increased pathogenic activity than the individual causal organism. Both Erwinia carotovora and F. oxysporum isolates were able to produce pectolytic enzymes i.e. polygalactouronase (PG) and pectin methyl esterase (PME). Soil treatment with lemongrass leaf powder, significantly decreased infection of basal rot at rate 2 g/kg soil by 90% while disease severity of internal decay decreased by 64%. On the other hand, in storage treatment, when bulbs were treated by 8 g/kg bulbs, the disease severity of internal decay of bulbs was inhibited completely.

 
16/9 PAPER MONEY AS A SOURCE OF BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

A.A. Kadry, S.I. Fouda and A.M. Shibl

Microbiology Division, Pharmaceutics Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Contaminated paper money (currency notes) can be a good source of transfer of pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic bacteria. Seven hundred and four paper currency notes (704) samples of different values were collected from different professional groups, in Riyadh City, S.A. About 91.8% of paper currency notes were bacteriologically contaminated. One-riyal bills were most contaminated (96%), followed by five (94.2%), ten (93.3%), and 20 (91.7%) riyal bills, respectively. Five hundred riyal bills were the least bacteriologically contaminated notes. The average of bacterial counts of summer specimens were more than that reported for winter specimens. Currency notes from workers in restaurants were the most mechanical carriage of bacterial contamination followed by those from workers in poultry shops, fish stores, meat handlers and bakeries, respectively. However, currency notes collected from employees were the least contaminated. Some bills were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, others were contaminated with opportunistic pathogens, and in some bills only saprophytic bacteria were isolated. Potential pathogens were isolated from contaminated currency notes and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Eleven (45.8%) isolates of group A streptococci were resistant to erythromycin. Ten (11.1%) out of 90 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were multidrug resistant. Moreover, 21 (23.3%) isolates were methicillin resistant (MRSA). No vancomycin intermediate resistant isolates were detected. Thirty-four (38.2%) out of 89Enterobacteriaceaeisolates were multidrug resistant, 14(15.7%) isolates were extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESbLs) producers. Other bacterial groups were isolated but in small number. Almost all isolates of Pseudomonas spp. were multidrug resistant. The three isolates of Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to at least 5 of tested antibiotics, one of them was resistant to vancomycin. Several ways to reduce paper currency notes contamination were conducted, and interfering with bacterial adherence looks promising and worth further investigation.

17/9 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND PIMECROLIMUS (ELIDELÒ) ON THE ACTIVITY OF SOME ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS AGAINST MULTIPLE RESISTANT CLINICAL CANDIDA ALBICANS ISOLATES FROM

VULVOVAGINAL AND SKIN CANDIDIASIS

A.M. Abo-Kamar; N.I. Aglan*; G.M. El Maghraby**and S.O. Nassar***

Dept. of Microbiology; Obstetrics & Gynecology*; Pharmaceutical technology** and Dermatology &Venereology***.   **Faculty of Pharmacy, *,***Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University.

One hundered patients [60 women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and 40 with skin candidiasis] were included in the present study. The VVC and skin candidiasis were detected by both clinical and microbiological examination. The susceptibility of a total 100 Candida albicans isolates to 7 common antifungal agents was determined. The incidence of resistance to the tested drugs ranged about from 12% to 61%. Lowest percentage of resistance was to ticonazole while the highest one was to fluconazole. We investigated the mechanism of resistance to azole antifungal agents in azole resistant strains of C. albicans by measurment of the efflux of ethidium by flourimetric method. We found that the resistance was due to the efflux mechanism. The effects of combining ascorbic acid, Pimecrolimus (SDZ ASM 981, Elidelâ) with different antifungal agents against C. albicans were investigated. The results of combination with ascorbic acid revealed that the percent reduction of resistance was in the range of 12.7% to 78.1%. The highest value was observed with miconazole (78.1%) while nystatin showed the lowest value (12.7). Time killing curve of C. albicans ATCC32354 was conducted in presence and absence of ascorbic acid with miconazole. The results revealed about 5 log reduction in the number of viable cells. The vaginal and skin miconazole ascorbic acid cream was found to be highly effective in eradicating the candidiasis and curing the clinical symptoms of the disease when used once daily for seven days. On the other hand, the in vitro activity of combination of pimecrolimus (Elidel) cream with miconazole and ascorbic acid showed higher activity against C. albicans than miconazole ascorbic acid cream. These results revealed the synergistic activity of ascorbic acid or pimecrolimus to antifungal agents against C. albicans resistant isolates.

18/9 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS

H.H. Abo-Ghalia*, M.T. El-Mokadem*, A.M. Ghanem** and K.A. Shaheen*

* Botany Department, Girls College for Arts, Science and Education Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

** Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University,

Cairo, Egypt

The antimicrobial effect of four essential oils [Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Majorana hortensis (marjoram), Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Pelargonium graveolens (geranium)] as well as commercial jojoba oil (Simmondsia chinensis)] were tested in vitro as antimicrobial agents against four Gram-ve bacteria (E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), five Gram + ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staph. faecalis, Staph. saprophyticus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Strept. pyogenes) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans) isolated from patients. The results showed that thymus oil was the most effective, followed by marjoram, basil and geranium oils. However, jojoba oil had no effect. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of thyme oil to inhibit all test microorganisms varied from 0.16 to 0.64 mg / ml medium. Candida albicans was inhibited at the lowest concentration (0.16 mg /ml). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of C. albicans showed a great alteration in shape and size of the treated cells. The chemical composition of thyme oil by gas chromatography showed that it contained 33.6% thymol, 29.4% p-cymene and 5.4% carvacrol. The antimicrobial activity of the major constituents of thyme oil was also tested. Thymol and carvacrol were the most active as antimicrobial agents, while p-cymene was inactive.

19/9 NOCARDIOPSIS SP.,A HALOPHILIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM KUWAIT

H.I Abbas.

Benha- Faculty of Science Zagazig University – Benha , Egypt.

From a sample of soil marsh collected in Kuwait the actinomycete isolate (Kucc, 2000) was obtained. It produces deep violet endo-pigments, grows well at 28-300C on media fortified with NaCl at concentrations ranging from 10-17% w/v. Whole- cell hydrolysate contains meso-diaminopimilic acid, alanine and glutamic acid (cell wall type III).   Glucose, galactose and xylose were the whole cell sugars. Predominant phospolipids are: Phophatidylinositol (PI), phosphoglycerol (PG) and phosphotidylcholine (PC); while MK-10 (H 2) and MK-10 (H6) predominant menaquinones. The DNA G+C % is 74.3 mol. On the basis of the obtained data on 16S ribosomal DNA analysis the studied isolate Kucc2000 T was related to the genus Nocardiopsis mainly on the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic differences and DNA-DNA hybridization results. The author suggests the classification of the studied isolate as a species of the genus Nocardiopsis to which the name Nocardiopsis keranienses is coined.

20/9 PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF PLANTARICIN UG1: AN ANTICLOSTRIDIAL BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED BY LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM UG1

G. Enan, H.A. Abdel-Salam*, I. El-Azouni

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University

*Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Egypt

A three-step purification procedure, including ammonium sulphate precipitation, dissociation of bacteriocin activity and chromatographic separation were developed for purification of plantaricin UG1 from culture filtrate of Lactobacillus plantarum UG1. At pH 6 and 60% ammonium sulphate saturation, the precipitated pellets contained the maximal plantaricin UG1 activity (22.880 AU/ml). Some dissociating agents including hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, sodium dodecyl sulphate and nonidet p-40 dissociated plantaricin UG1 activity, thereby releasing more active subunits. Ultrafiltration studies showed that plantaricin UG1 is a multimolecular complex with a molecular weight between 3 and 10 KDa. The bacteriocin plantaricin UG1 was easily purified using hydrophobic interaction chromatography and reverse phase chromatography. This was judged by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which resolved a 37000 daltons and 18500 daltons protein bands. Amino acid analysis revealed that plantaricin UG1 composed about 29 to 31 amino acids.

21/9 SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DIFFERENT MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM EGYPTIAN PATIENTS TO DIRECTLY OBSERVED TREATMENT SHORT COURSE ANTIMYCOBACTERIAL AGENTS

M.S. Ashour, H.M. Hefni, T.R. Mohamed, T.M.S. Awad and H.A.M. Samaha

The Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty of Pharmacy,

Al-Azhar University Cairo, Egypt

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.TB.) isolates obtained from 26 patients attending Abbassia Chest Hospital, showing Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture +ve, Bactec +ve and Bactec p-nitro-α-acetylamino-β-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP test) positive, were screened for antimycobacterial agents used in directly observed treatment short course (DOTS). 83.3% of patients pretreated with antimycobacterial agent were found to be resistant to both isoniazide (INH) and Rifampicin (RMP). 50% of pretreated patients were resistant to ethambutol (EMB), INH and RMP. Finally, 16.7% of pretreated patients were resistant to all DOTS used antimycobacterial agents. On the other hand, 65% of untreated patients were resistant to one or more antimycobacterial agent. 45% of untreated patients were resistant to both INH and RMP, whereas 5% of untreated patients were resistant to all DOTS used antimycobacterial agents. Relationship between these findings and those obtained by previous studies as well as their impact on the application of DOTS program in Egypt are discussed in the text.

22/9 INVESTIGATION OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE LABORATORY DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS (MTB)

M.S. Ashour, H.M. Hefni, T.R. Mohamed, T.M.S. Awad and H.A.M. Samaha

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University Cairo, Egypt

One hundred and ten patients attending Abbassia Chest Hospital participated in this investigation. Pretreatment with anti-tuberculosis drug(s) (ATD(s)) significantly affects the acid fast positive rate (AF +ve) (P < 0.005). Also, AF +ve rates varied with immunocompetence and gender factors (P< 0.05 and P<0.1 respectively) in untreated patients. Using LJ culture as a gold standard, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were affected by immunocompetence, gender and treatment factors. Pretreatment with ATD(s) was found to be the major source for decrease in sensitivity because of false AF +ve results. AMTD-1 test was carried on 30 AF +ve patient specimens. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 61.9%, 66.66%, 81.25% and 42.85%, respectively. False positive AMTD-1 results were due to pretreatment, whereas false negative results were due to the presence of nonspecific materials which may interfere with enzymatic amplification mechanisms of the test.

23/9 SAFE AND APPLICABLE PLANT ALTERNATIVE OF ANIMAL AND MICROBIAL

MILK – CLOTTING ENZYMES

S.A.Saleh

Department of Microbial Biotechnology, National Research Centre Dokki,

Cairo, Egypt

The wild Egyptian plant Silybum marianum proved to be an excellent producer of milk –clotting enzymes which were superior to calf or sheep rennin, also to fungal rennin – like enzymes .The highest active enzymes were found in the plant flowers with considerable activity levels in the other plant parts (stems and heads).The flowers enzymes possessed 20 and 8 – fold activity as those of stems and heads, respectively. Moreover, applying all the optimum conditions, the partially purified flowers enzyme (by 63.3 % ethanol precipitation) was more active (42% increase) than that of calf-rennin precipitated by 49 % acetone. This selected enzyme fraction exhibited good thermostability within wide temperature range (40 –50°C) at pH 6.5 and had negligible proteolytic (caseinase) activity,indicating high milk clotting/proteolytic (MC/P) activity ratio. These advantages pointed out the high efficiency and applicability of the ethanol Silybum marianum enzyme fraction as a powerful safe competitor to either the calf rennin or the other rennin – like enzymes in cheese –making process

 
24/9 L-ASCORBIC ACID PRODUCTION BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM

H.A. Emara

Soils, Water and Environment Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Centre, Giza, Egypt.

An attempt was made to evaluate ascorbic acid productivity by a strain of Azotobacter chroococcum under various cultural conditions. The optimal conditions for ascorbic acid production viz: an inoculum of 24 hours- old; incubation temp 30oC for 48 hours, pH 7 and glucose as a carbon source at a concentration of 0.5%. Results stressed on the importance of carbon source and its concentration.

25/9 PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION   OF AN EXOINULINASE FROM STREPTOMYCES GRISEUS

W.A. El-Shouny, T.E. El-Banna*, A.B. Mohamed and A.F.H. El-Said

Botany Department, Faculty of Science and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy*, Tanta University

The inulinase of Streptomyces griseus was precipitated as an active fraction by ammonium sulphate (44-67%) and further purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Protein contamination was completely removed from the purified material. At the end of this purification step, the specific activity of the obtained inulinase reached 6.99 U/ mg protein, and the purification fold was 6.6. The purified enzyme had the following characters: The molecular weight was estimated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be 104 KDa. The optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 and 40˚C. The inulinase fraction could withstand the effect of temperature up to 40˚C for 90 minutes without a complete loss of the activity. The addition of ZnSO4, MgSO4, MnSO4 or FeSO4 at 5.3 mM to the purified inulinase significantly inhibited its activity. Lower inhibition levels were recorded in the presence of CuSO4 and MnCl2. However, the pure enzyme was stable in the presence of CaCl2 at 5.3 mM.The purified inulinase was immobilized on DEAE cellulose with 6% glutaraldehyde. This resulted in an enhancement of inulinase activity by 2 folds compared with the control. The immobilized inulinase became more stable when exposed to heating at 60˚C for 90 min recording a residual activity of 77.7%, while the free enzyme completely lost its activity under these conditions.

26/9 RAPID METHOD FOR TESTING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS TO ISONIAZID AND RIFAMPIN

W.N. El-Tayeb

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alazhar University

Traditional susceptibility testing methods of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is either time consuming or expensive. The present study was designed to evaluate the nitrate reductase assay method for testing susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid and rifampin. The present study utilized Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from twenty eight tuberculous patients. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampin by proportion method, Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube Method (MGIT) and nitrate reductase assay method (NRA). The results were evaluated in reference to the proportion method. The data analysis for nitrate reductase assay method revealed 96.2 and 88.5 % concordance with proportional method for isoniazid and rifampin respectively. For MGIT method, data of the study revealed 76.9 % and 92.3% concordance with proportional method for isoniazid and rifampin respectively. It was concluded the potential of the nitrate reductase assay method to become a promising rapid and inexpensive method of susceptibility testing of Mycobacteriumtuberculosis in developing countries.

27/9 EVALUATION OF CURRENTLY USED ANTIMICROBIALS TO GRAM-NEGATIVE PATHOGENS CAUSING COMMUNITY ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

A. M. Diab, A.A. Abdelrahman* and HK. Abd El-Latif**

Botany and Microbiology & *Immunology Depts., Faculties of Science and Pharmacy, Suez Canal and Zagazig Universities, Egypt.

The most currently used antimicrobials grouped as first line of treatment including ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, first generation cephalosporins; cepharidine and cephalexin, ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicllin/clavulanic acid and nalidixic acid, as well as the second line of treatment comprised second and third generations of cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, aztreonam, imipenem and early fluroquinolones were evaluated using the disc diffusion method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommendations. Consecutive gram negative pathogens (250) isolated in pure cultures from urinary tract-infected cases under treatment, were found to belong to Escherichiacoli (71.8%), Klebsiella spp. (8.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.8%), Proteus mirabilis (5.9%), Enterobacter spp. (3.5%), Citrobacter freundii (2.2%) and Serratia marcescens (0.9%). Resistance was confirmed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) by using the broth micro-dilution method. Most of the studied gram negative isolates causing UTI isolated strains showed better overall sensitivity to antimicrobials grouped as a second line of treatment with exception to second generation cephalosporins. MIC (S) of up to 2-16 µg/ml ampicillin, 4-16 µg/ml ampicillin/sulbactam and 1-8 µg/ml cefaclor, were recorded. Pseudomonas aerugionsa showed high sensitivity to imipenem (100%), aztreonam (93%) and early fluoroquinolones (93%). Among third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, the organism was highly sensitive to ceftazidime and tobramycin respectively meanwhile mostly resistant frequently prescribed antimicrobials including first and second generations of cephalosporins should be restricted while oral early fluoroquinolones are selected as the ideal current antimicrobials of choice for the treatment of Community Acquired (CA) Urinary Tract Infections (UTI). Periodic monitoring of the etiology of UTI and the susceptibility of organisms is necessary to assess trends of resistance, selection of antimicrobials and modification of empirical therapy to prevent the emergence of resistant bacterial strains for a better treatment.

28/9 THE CORRELATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND BIOCIDES RESISTANCE AMONG NON-FERMENTING GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA (NFGNB)

*H.K. Abd El-Latif, **A.M. Abo-Kamar * M.Kh. Okasha ***H.K. Abd El-Latif

* Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University,

**Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University

***Department of Anesthesiology -Faculty of Medicine - Zagazig University

The present study aimed to find a possible link between bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents and resistance to biocides & heavy metals. Twenty two non-fermenting gram negative bacteria strains were isolated from patients in intensive care units (ICUs). These isolates tested for their susceptibility to 17 antibiotics and to five biocides commonly used in hospitals. Various resistance rates were recorded for the tested antimicrobial agents. Thus complete (100%) resistance was recorded for piperacillin, cefoxitin, ampicillin, tobramycin, erythromycin sulphamethoxazol-trimethoprim, penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol cephradine, cefadroxil, and ceftriaxon. Aztreonam, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and imipenem showed resistance rates of 76, 76, 58 and 41% respectively. For biocides, all tested organisms had MICs of 50 mg/L and 60 mg/L for cetrimide and sodium hypochlorite respectively. For phenol Enterobacter aerogenes, En.cloacae, Serratia. marcescens, Klebsiella pneum. pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis had MICs of 2000 mg/L whereas Acinetobacter baumannii and Ps. aeruginosa had MICs of 1000 mg/L respectively. For glutaraldahyde except of S. marcescens and P. mirabilis which had MICs of 1000 mg/L, all other isolates had MIC of 500 mg/L. For formaldehyde Ps. aeruginosa had MIC of 165 mg/L. S. marcescens and Acinetobacter baumannii 21 and the remaining isolates had MIC of 42 mg/L. Also, MICs of these resistant isolates of non fermenting gram negative bacteria (NFGNB) were determined for certain heavy metals. MICs of the tested isolated were 600 and 400 pp m/ml for cadmium (Cd2+) and arsenates (As3+) ions respectively. For nickel the most sensitive isolates was Proteus mirabilis 100 ppm/ml and the other isolates had MICs of 200 ppm/ml while Acinetobacter sp. recorded the higher MICs 400 ppm/ml. for mercury Acinetobacter baumanni had MICs 4 ppm/ml and the other test isolates had MICs (7 - 25 ppm/ml). For silver ion, Serratia marcescens had MIC 3 ppm/ml, while other organism ranged from 13-200 ppm/ml. The plasmid profile of tested isolates showed that Ps. aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis were plasmidless while each of Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter aerogenes each harbored one plasmid. 140, 10 DMa respectively. On the other hand, other isolates had 2-3 plasmids and the size of plasmid ranged from 4.8 - 140 MDa. Curing with novobiocin was carried out on the selected isolates. All the tested cured derivatives lost their resistance concurrently with loss of all plasmid contents. The obtained results indicated that resistance to Hg2+, Ag+ and Ni+ are plasmid mediated. Also resistance to phenol and formaldehyde in some genera are plasmid mediated. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance in these organisms is of greater significance. The data of atomic absorption revealed that no detoxification processes occur for silver, nickel and cadmium. In case of arsenic reduction in concentration with Acinetobacter sp. and Proteus sp. were 1/27 and 1/13 of the control value solution, these data may be due to production of arsenate reductases system.

29/9 ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES OF THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SOIL AND WATER OF HAMMAM FARA’UN A HOT SPRING IN SINAI, EGYPT.

A.A. Rushdy

Botany Department, Faculty of Girls For Arts, Science and Education

Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Three soil and two water samples representing different sites of Hammam Fara’un (Pharaoh’s Bath; hot water spring in Sinai) were investigated for their thermophilic bacterial counts, identification and certain enzyme activities (amylase, lipase and protease). Isolation was performed on two rich agar media viz Bunt and Rovira Yeast Agar (BRYA) and Trypton Yeast Glucose Agar (TYGA). Counts varied greatly with the variation of samples used and the type of medium applied. A total of 180 bacterial isolates were recorded (130 from soil and 50 from water samples), and identified as Gram positive, sporeformer rods, belonging to 9 species of the genus Bacillus viz, B. coagulans, B. subtilis, B.licheniformis, B. circulans, B. stearothermophilus, B. lentus, B. cereus, B. brevis and B. pumilus. Screening of thermophilic enzymes amylase, lipase and protease was performed. The most potent thermophilic bacterial isolates belonged to B.coagulans and B.licheniformis while the least ones belonged to B. lentus, B. brevis and B.pumilus. In general isolates with potency of activity for any particular enzyme are usually potent for the two other enzymes, with the exception of three isolates belonging to B. lentus B. brevis and B.pumilus. The efficiency of applying immobilization technique in the production of lipase, amylase and protease by B.coagulans was investigated. Ca alginate at gel concentration of 2% (w/v) was most suitable for entrapping. B.coagulans cells to perform the most efficient enzymes formation.

30/9 PREVALENCE OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA INFECTION AND ESTIMATION OF THE RISK OF INVASIVE AMOEBIASIS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN BANI ADI ASSUIT GOVERNORATE

A.H. Abdel-Tawab

Department of parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University,

(Assuit), Egypt.

345 preschool children from 2-5 years of age enrolled in this study were from Bani Adi, Assuit Governorate. Stool samples were collected from all and examined microscopically, also stool culture was done for all using Robinson's media. Blood samples were taken from only 215 of those 345 children and tested for the presence of antibodies to lectin. The overall prevalence of asymptomatic colonization with E.histolytica infection was 6.9% as determined by antigen detection and 5.5% and 11.3% as determined by microscopy and culture respectively. In contrast , 40% of children infected with E.histolytica had serum antibodies to lectin. This anti lectin response included antibodies against carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) which have been demonstrated in animal models to confere passive protection from amoebiasis. The conclusion of this study is that asymptomatic E.histolytica infection is common in children less than five years old and that it carries a risk of the future development of invasive amoebiasis.

31/9 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF COTTON FABRICS TREATED WITH DIFFERENT FINISHING AGENTS AND CHITOSAN

M.A. El-Bendary, Kh.F. El-Tahlawy*2 and A.G.E. El-Hendawy**

FROM

Microbial Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

*Textile Research Division, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

**Home Economic Department, Specific Education Faculty, Tanta University

Cotton fabrics were treated with two different crosslinking agents [butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) and Arcofix NEC (low formaldehyde content)] in the presence of chitosan to provide the cotton fabrics a durable press finishing and antimicrobial properties by chemical linking of chitosan to the cellulose structure. Both type and concentration of finishing agent in the presence of chitosan as well as the treatment conditions significantly affected the performance properties and antimicrobial activity of the treated cotton fabrics. The treated fabrics showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and certain fungi. Treatment of cotton fabrics with BTCA/chitosan strengthened the antimicrobial activity more than the fabrics treated with Arcofix NEC/chitosan. The maximum antimicrobial activity obtained when the cotton fabrics treated with 0.5-0.75 % chitosan of molecular weight 1.5-5 KDa and cured at 160 °C for 2-3 minutes. Applying of different metal ions to cotton fabrics treated with finishing agent and chitosan showed a negligible effect on the antimicrobial activity. Partial replacement of Arcofix NEC with BTCA in the presence of chitosan enhanced antimicrobial activity of the treated fabrics in comparison with that of Arcofix NEC/chitosan. Transmission electron microscope study showed that the exposure of bacteria and yeast to chitosan treated fabrics resulted in deformation and shrinking of cell membranes. The site of chitosan action is probably the microbial membrane and subsequently death of the cell due to membrane disruption.

 


32/9 SOLUBLE ADHESION MOLECULES (sICAM – 1 & sVCAM-1) SERUM LEVEL IN ASYMPTOMATIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS CARRIERS

M.M. Hamza*, A.A. Aboulata**

Tropical Medicine, Aswan Teaching Hospital* and Microbiology & Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University**

Intercellular cell adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1) are expressed in a high quantity on hepatocytes and at the level of endothelium cells from sinusoidal vessels in the liver tissue of patients with chronic hepatitis C. The soluble form of these molecules sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 can be determined in the serum of patients through the immunoenzymatic technique (ELISA). This study was carried on 82 asymptomatic HCV carriers' patients; they were positive for anti-HCV antibody by a second-generation assay and for HCV RNA by a nested polymerase chain reaction and their AST and ALT levels had been less than 30 IU/1 for at least 6 months. Fifty four patients had elevated ALT levels diagnosed by liver biopsy as having chronic hepatitis, were also included in this study. For comparison, thirty healthy controls were included in this study, they were negative for HCV antibody and HCV RNA done by a nested polymerase chain reaction. All patients were randomly selected from El-Hussien and Aswan Teaching Hospitals. The aim of this study was to measure serum levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in asymptomatic hepatitis C virus carriers and clarifies the clinical significance of measuring soluble forms. Serum levels of sICAM-1 were significantly higher in asymptomatic carriers than in healthy controls but serum sVCAM-1 levels did not differ statistically from those in healthy controls. Estimating sICAM-1 in asymptomatic carriers may be helpful, especially in cases in which liver biopsy is not possible.

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